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Russie, Fédération de

Information générale

Admission to the OSCE: 25 June 1973

Policing overview: The principal law enforcement agencies are the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation, the Federal Customs Service, the Federal Security Service, the Federal Guard Service, the Federal Drug Control Service as well as the Office of the Prosecutor General and the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.


Ministry of the Interior

1. Functions and missions
2. Structure and organization
3. Education / Training

1. Functions and missions
The Ministry of the Interior (MVD) is a federal agency of the executive branch of the Government of the Russian Federation, which is responsible for the formulation and implementation of State policy in the area of internal affairs, including migration, and for the regulation of that area on the basis of legal instruments and laws. The Ministry co ordinates and oversees the activities of the Federal Migration Service (FMS), which is subordinate to it. Within its area of competence, the Ministry ensures the protection of human and civil rights and freedoms, the maintenance of public order and road safety, in addition to preventing, uncovering, interdicting and investigating crimes and administrative infractions.

The Ministry controls and organizes the work of the internal affairs agencies of the Russian Federation (the police) and of the Ministry’s interior forces. Acting in accordance with the laws of the Russian Federation, it also co ordinates and carries out criminal investigations and inquiries and is responsible for forensic activities.

2. Structure and organization
The Russian Ministry of the Interior is headed by the Minister for the Interior, who is supported by a first deputy minister, three deputy ministers and one state secretary/deputy minister.

The Ministry carries out its activities directly and/or through its system of chief directorates for the federal districts, ministries, chief directorates and directorates of the constituent territorial entities of the Russian Federation, internal affairs directorates (offices) for rail, water and air transport, directorates (offices) in restricted administrative-territorial entities and for especially important and restricted facilities, district directorates for logistic and military support as well as the bodies charged with the command and control of the interior forces and the formations and military units of the interior forces.

The principal autonomous structural subdivisions of the Ministry’s central apparatus are:

  • The Investigation Committee, whose essential mandate covers the formulation of proposals on the framing of the State’s policy with regard to the investigation of criminal activities and the organization of the work of the preliminary investigation authorities;
  • The Criminal Investigations Department, which in addition to its other work supervises in terms of organization and methods the criminal investigation units of the criminal police authorities in the constituent territorial entities of the Federation;
  • The Department of Public Order, which includes: the directorate for analysis and strategic policy for the maintenance of public order, the directorate for preliminary investigations, and the directorate for licences and permits;
  • The Logistics Department, which provides support and performs the functions of a ministry in formulating and implementing State policy in the areas of logistic and medical support, information technology and communications within the system of the Ministry of the Interior;
  • The Personnel Department, which is responsible for supervising the personnel divisions of the internal affairs authorities and the Ministry of the Interior’s educational establishments;
  • The Department of Economic Security, one of whose basic tasks is to adopt measures to combat tax-related and economic crimes;
  • The Organizational and Inspectorate Department, whose principal responsibilities include the analysis and planning of the Ministry’s operational activities and also the organization of oversight and auditing activities within the system of the Ministry of the Interior;
  • The Road Safety Department;
  • The Financial and Economic Department, which is involved in the formulation and implementation of government policy with regard to the financing of the internal affairs authorities, the interior forces and the Federal Migration Service;
  • The Transport Law Enforcement Department;
  • The Restricted Territories and Restricted Facilities Law Enforcement Department.

Within the Ministry’s central apparatus there are a number of other divisions, such as the Interior Forces High Command, the Organized Crime and Terrorism Department, the Legal Department, the Administrative Department, the Higher Centre for Information and Analysis, the Forensic Centre and the Department for State Protection of Property. The Ministry’s central apparatus also includes the All Russia Scientific Research Institute of the Ministry of the Interior.

The mission of the interior forces of the Ministry of the Interior is to ensure the security of persons, society and the State and to protect human and civil rights against criminal and other unlawful infringements. Together with the internal affairs agencies of the Russian Federation, the interior forces help to maintain public order, protect important government facilities and goods in shipment belonging to the State, and ensure public safety and the observance of states of emergency. The Ministry’s interior forces assist the border troops of the Federal Security Service (FSB) in protecting the State borders of the Russian Federation and also take part in the territorial defence of the Russian Federation and in measures to combat terrorism on Russian territory.

The regional interior forces of the Ministry of the Interior are divided into seven districts as well as troop units and formations directly subordinate to the Commander in Chief of the Ministry’s interior forces, which include a separate operational division, a communications centre and logistic support centre for the Ministry’s interior forces. The interior forces include four special purpose elite units (“Vityaz”, “Rus”, “ROSICH” and “Skif”), special motorized formations and operational formations and troop units.

3. Education / Training
Responsibility for organizing the system for the professional training of Interior Ministry personnel rests with the Ministry’s Chief Directorate for Personnel. The Ministry’s professional training system includes 108 training centres of the Ministry of the Interior, the Chief Directorate for Internal Affairs and the internal affairs directorates in the constituent territorial entities of the Russian Federation; 30 institutions of higher education (including five academies, 20 institutes and five higher education establishments for the interior forces); one institute for advanced training; and 11 specialized secondary education establishments. Within the system of institutions of higher education, there are 21 postgraduate courses and five doctoral degree courses for the training of academics and teaching staff, in addition to 135 advanced training departments.

Specialists are trained at the Ministry’s training establishments in 10 specialized fields and areas of expertise, including criminal investigation, financial crime investigation, administrative law, business law, laws governing the education of minors and preliminary investigation techniques as employed in internal affairs agencies.

Federal Customs Service

1. Functions and missions
2. Structure and organization

1. Functions and missions
The Federal Customs Service (FTS) is a federal agency of the executive branch of government, which is authorized, in accordance with the laws and statutory instruments of the Russian Federation, to perform functions connected with the formulation of State policy and regulatory activities, control and oversight in customs matters and also currency control functions along with special functions involving countermeasures against smuggling, other crimes and administrative infractions. The Government of the Russian Federation oversees the operations of the Federal Customs Service.

The basic powers of the Federal Customs Service extend to the collection of customs duties, taxes and fees, monitoring to ensure that these revenues are calculated correctly and paid on time, and also the application of measures for their compulsory collection.

The Federal Customs Service is responsible for ensuring compliance with prohibitions and restrictions imposed on goods crossing Russian customs borders as provided for under Russian laws governing State control of foreign trade activity and in international treaties signed by the Russian Federation. It is also responsible for customs clearance and control.

2. Structure and organization
The Federal Customs Service carries out its activities directly and through the customs authorities and the Service’s offices abroad.

The central apparatus of the Federal Customs Service includes the Office of the Director of the Service, the Chief Directorate for the Organization of Customs Control, the Chief Directorate for Contraband Control, the Chief Directorate for Federal Customs Revenues, the Customs Investigations Directorate, the Currency Control Directorate, the Information Technology Directorate and a number of other directorates.

Within the Federal Customs Service there are seven regional customs directorates located in the federal districts of the Russian Federation and 136 customs houses.

Federal Security Service

1. Functions and missions
2. Structure and organization
3. Education / Training

1. Functions and missions
The Federal Security Service (FSB) is a federal agency of the executive branch of government, which is responsible for ensuring the security of the Russian Federation and protecting and guarding the country’s borders. It is also responsible for information security and co ordinates the counterintelligence activities of those federal agencies of the executive branch that are authorized to engage in such activities.

The FSB’s principal responsibilities include among other things: the detection, prevention and interdiction of intelligence and other activities by intelligence services and organizations of foreign States, the co ordination of counterintelligence measures, the suppression and detection of crimes, measures to combat organized criminality, corruption, smuggling, illegal migration and illicit trafficking in weapons, and also the protection of classified government information.

2. Structure and organization
The Federal Security Service is headed by a director, who is supported by one first deputy director, one first deputy director in charge of the FSB Border Service and three deputy directors, one of whom is a state secretary.

The central apparatus of the FSB consists of the Counterintelligence Service, the Constitutional Order and Terrorism Prevention Service, the Border Service, the Economic Security Service, the Operational Information and International Communications Service and a number of other services.

Directly subordinate to the Federal Security Service are the FSB directorates (offices) for the individual regions and constituent territorial entities of the Russian Federation; the FSB directorates (offices) within the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, troops and other formations; the FSB directorates (detachments, offices) for the Border Service; air units, special training centres, special purpose units, educational, research and specialist establishments, and other enterprises and establishments designed to support the activities of the FSB.

3. Education / Training
The Federal Security Service Academy in Moscow is the leading establishment for the training of FSB personnel. The Institute for Cryptography, Communications and Computer Science is also part of the FSB training system.

Federal Guard Service

1. Functions and missions
2. Structure and organization

1. Functions and missions
The Federal Guard Service (FSO) is a federal agency of the executive branch, which, acting in accordance with laws and other legal instruments in force, is responsible for regulating, monitoring and overseeing the security of presidential, governmental and other forms of special communications and information.

The Federal Guard Service’s basic duties are to ensure the security of facilities for which it is responsible, to participate, within the scope of its competence, in counterterrorism activities, to arrange for and secure the operation of special communication links and information channels used by government agencies, and to provide government agencies with information technology support and information analyses.

The Federal Guard Service provides for the personal protection of the President, members of his family and other leading government figures, sees to the proper operation of the President’s communication channels, and also guards government facilities.

2. Structure and organization
The Federal Guard Service of the Russian Federation is headed by the director of the Service, who is supported by deputies, whose number is set by the President of the Russian Federation.

In structural terms, the Federal Guard Service includes directorates for special communications and information in the federal districts, special communications and information centres, and special purpose communications departments; its own training, research and other establishments; and finally the FSO Academy.

The Federal Guard Service also comprises the special communications service, the Presidential security service, the Presidential regiment, which is responsible for guarding the Kremlin, the Presidential residence and other top-secret facilities, and a number of other bodies.

Federal Drug Control Agency

1. Functions and missions
2. Structure and organization

1. Functions and missions
The Federal Drug Control Service of the Russian Federation (FSKN) is a federal agency of the executive branch of government, which formulates State policy and, acting in accordance with laws and other legal instruments in force, regulates, monitors and oversees the circulation of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors and also measures to combat illicit trafficking in these substances.

The Federal Drug Control Service also co ordinates the activities of the federal agencies of the executive branch, the executive branch authorities in the constituent territorial entities of the Russian Federation and the local self government authorities having to do with the circulation of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors and also with measures to combat their illicit trafficking.

2. Structure and organization
The Federal Drug Control Service is headed by a director, who is appointed and may be dismissed from office by the President of the Russian Federation.

The director is supported by deputies who are appointed and may be dismissed by the President of the Russian Federation, who also determines their number.

The Federal Drug Control Service performs its activities directly and/or through its system of regional directorates, directorates (offices) in the various constituent territorial entities of the Russian Federation, and other organizations and divisions set up under the procedure established by the laws of the Russian Federation for discharging duties assigned to the Federal Drug Control Service.

The principal structural components within the Federal Drug Control Service’s central apparatus are:

  • Department for Regional Organizational Activities;
  • Criminal Investigations Department;
  • Department for Inter Agency and Information Affairs;
  • Investigation Department;
  • International Law Department;
  • Administrative Department;
  • Operational Support Department;
  • Personnel Department;
  • Social and Forensic Support Department;
  • Logistics Department.

Liens

Ministry of the Interior - Russian Federation  Ministry of the Interior - Russian Federation http://www.mvd.ru/
Official website of the Ministry of the Interior of the Russian Federation, available in Russian, Arabic and English.

Federal Customs Service - Russian Federation  Federal Customs Service - Russian Federation http://www.customs.ru/
Official website of the Federal Customs Service, available in English and Russian.

Federal Security Service - Russian Federation  Federal Security Service - Russian Federation http://www.fsb.ru/
Official website of the Russian Federal Security Service

Federal Drug Control Service - Russian Federation  Federal Drug Control Service - Russian Federation http://www.fskn.gov.ru/
Official website

OSCE/ ODIHR - Russian Federation  OSCE/ ODIHR - Russian Federation http://www.legislationline.org/topics/country/7/topic/12
Legislationline is an internet-based free-of-charge legislative database published and maintained by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights.

Dernière mise-à-jour 5 mars 2007

Voir aussi: Estonie, Kazakhstan, Japon, Bélarus, Géorgie, Finlande, Ukraine, Norvège, Lituanie, Lettonie, Mongolie

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